“Refugees are mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers, children, with the same hopes and ambitions as us-except that a twist of fate has bound their lives to a global refugee crisis on an unprecedented scale.”
As the above definition, life security and satisfaction for everyone in the world is essential. It is an important process that should be undertaken by both individual and state governments. It is the maxim of human morality and morality. The analysis revealed a clear distinction between refugees and asylum seekers mentioned in the issue, namely that being a refugee must be recognized under the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees, Asylum seekers which requires international protection, but the right to asylum has not yet been determined. In such a situation, refugee can be identified as a major humanitarian crisis that is currently engulfing the entire world. Refugees are areas where people are forced to flee their homes because of a well-founded fear of persecution, whether on the grounds of race, religion, nationality, or political cause. This presents a wide practical and analytical review of the basic structure and extent of asylum, the challenges faced by the countries in managing them, the nature of the intervention, and how refugees have been affected by the Covid-19 epidemic.
Refugee can be identified as one of the most pressing issues that needs to be addressed in the world today. According to the 2019 UNHCR Report, 2019 has reached the highest number of IDPs in the world, 70.80 million. One in 97 people, or about 1% of the world’s population, is still displaced and the number of registered refugees is more than 25 million around the world. About 84% of the world’s refugees are first-time residents of low-middle-income countries, and about 70% of refugee families are living below the poverty line. The presence of data reports on displacement is a numerical theory that further demonstrates the quantifiable nature of the displacement. As a result, refugee camps worldwide are on the rise, and the United Nations estimates that the number of refugees living in camps has risen to 36%.Uganda’s recent rise to the world’s largest refugee settlement has overtaken Kenya’s Dadaab refugee camp of over
245,000, making South Sudan the fourth largest host of refugees and the sixth largest refugee producing country, according to the United Nations. And by the 1980s, nearly 4 million Afghan refugees were living in Pakistan, and that number had fluctuated steadily over the past four decades. Today, one in 10 refugees comes from Afghanistan.
There are a number of still unsolved crises faced by states and international organizations in the management of refugees. The intensity of the impact has had a profound impact on refugee hosts. One of the biggest challenges is the difficulty of accessing quality education, skills and education opportunities for refugees. According to a 2019 UNHCR report, more than 4 million children have stopped attending school. In such a situation, the ability of the refugee child to build on their skills is diminished. But it is also worth noting that some countries have adopted a positive approach to the education of these refugees, while the official induction program in Denmark has raised the need for language standardization for refugees for up to five years. Like Sweden and New Zealand, it is advisable to use the theory of refugee education as a choice between regions on the overall profile. But overall, poor education and lack of literacy are an unsolved problems for refugees. Low-income countries, like the high-income countries, have failed to make a positive impact on the education of refugees. As a result, more than half of the refugee children are still living in seven countries. Those are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Chad, Kenya, Lebanon, Pakistan and Turkey.
This lack of education is another important area in which refugee psychosocial spaces have emerged within the health care system, including sexual abuse, exploitation and violence. According to the 2017 UNICEF report, violence against young girls has more than doubled, and according to UNICEF reports, 32% of registered marriages in Syrian refugee camps involve children under the age of 18, while Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan and Egypt, where one-half of all refugee families are women and that most of the marriages in those countries are in the category of underage marriage. Furthermore, women fleeing Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras in Central America are frequently threatened with violence, and most of them are classified as underage mothers. HARASSmap shows a gradual increase in the number of refugee women recently incarcerated in Egypt and at the same time, domestic Gender Based Violence (GBV) is on the rise is well. Eradication of all forms of discrimination against refugee women is also important, and Ethiopia should be commended for its efforts to combat women violence in
refugee camps. March 31, 2009 Hong Kong Law Society has presented the Convention on Torture (CAT). Even the decision of Sakthevel Prabakar V Defence Secretary (2004) 7HK CFAR 187 has had a regulatory impact on the human rights assessment of refugee women’s torture.
Furtherly, racial phobias and cultural clashes between refugees have created a lack of education and morals. It has also been suggested that the likelihood of them being isolated globally has increased. Refugees are in a crisis of security and in some cases they have been the subject of practical harassment and police detention. The lack of a standardized health system and the inability to fill refugees is a serious problem. Reproductive health, epidemics, chronic illnesses, poor care for the elderly, or lack of a policy framework for managing their health is still questionable. In the recent past refugees are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. In these circumstances, the interventions of the respective refugee hosting countries and the involvement of international organizations must be reconsidered.
Accordingly, there is a need for a process of valuation of refugee rights and services, which is essential in identifying refugee rights, existing services and their socially and culturally transparent information. The refugee repatriation site at the University of Michigan’s Legal Refugee Section has been presented on the challenges facing refugees in dealing with the United Nations High Commission for Refugees as well as obtaining documents from local authorities.
In this way, the various challenges that refugees face, directly and indirectly, can be discussed, while economic scarcity is a major obstacle for refugees. It is important to manage the asylum by providing a solid foundation for this and to achieve the desired results; otherwise the usefulness of all other solutions and measures will be diminished. 2019 It is a modern trend that large numbers of venezuelans flee their home countries to obtain food, jobs and a successful life in Colombia and its surrounding countries. The number of unauthorized asylum seekers arriving by boat gradually increased from 2009 – 2750, 2010 – 6800, and compared with the data for the number of unauthorized refugees arriving by boat to Italy in 2006-72000, 2007-51000 has been entered. It is also a serious matter that nearly 400,000 applications for asylum within the European Union are applied every year. As such, this high limit for refugee hosts is unbearable, and as a result, the United States is taking steps to deport people without legal status, and US President Donald trump decides to stop the resettlement process in the United States and steps to deport and return asylum seekers across the southern border of the United States can also be considered new circumstances. Europe has also funded the border agency FONTEX to deport these illegal persons, while the Tanzania torture process has returned to 100,000 Burundi refugees. Turkey, which is the most favored country for refugees, has identified measures to deport Syrian refugees in the country, and the closure of the Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya, as well as in countries such as Greece, Sweden and Israel, which provide financial aid for refugees to leave.
Countries and international organizations have also taken some important and successful initiatives for the economic well-being of refugees globally. Ethiopia’s Jijiga, ILO 2019 Proposals for the Improvement of Trade Systems for Refugees and Host Communities Consumer market study in the Kukuma area of Kenya through IFC 2018 and the UNHR 2014, 2015,2016,2017,2018,2019 reports on the economic aspirations of the refugees are also important opportunities to identify refugee issues and guide them. GLMLIC 2017, CGDEV 2019 are also important to note here. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is also proposing financial assistance for the modernization of refugee response through a 2018 international agreement, and the United Nations in collaboration with the United Nations Women Leadership Project on Aboriginal Women in Economic, Social and Cultural Impact Successful steps towards improvement must be evaluated. Further, the WMC has presented six recommended areas for livelihood building, such as training and placement programs, financial assistance for work, building a camp economy, agrarian intervention, micro finance and enterprise development.
The essence of this essay, however, is that the interventions of countries and international organizations on refugees and their performances with the Covid-19 pandemic, which covers about 210 countries in the world, have been re-evaluated. The World Economy is in dire straits with this pandemic. With this epidemic, the world economy is in serious crisis, with the higher economy falling by 7% and also the Asian Development Bank emphasized that Asia’s growth rate will fall from 5.2% to 2.2% this year. In this scenario, the world unemployment rate is set to reach 8.5% in May 2020, the highest unemployment rate in the world over the past decade. It should be noted that in this situation, it is extremely difficult to maintain projects focused on refugees.
In this rapidly spreading Covid-19 virus situation, the immediate removal of vulnerable refugees is important. Libya has asked the Doctors Without Borders Organization (MSF) and European states to set up a humanitarian corridor to remove these vulnerable migrants. MSF has already issued guidelines for the immediate evacuation of refugees over the age of 60 from Greek islands. It is also important to note that a Task Force on Transitional Mobility has already been established in collaboration with Hand in Hand for Aid and Development Organization (HIHFAD),World Health Organization (WHO), ,Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO), International Organization for Migration (IOM), The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for West Asia (ESCWA). The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a 24-hour Bureau for the Health and Safety of over 1 million Rohingya refugees in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. In addition, WHO provided Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs), personal hygiene products and disinfectants to refugee and immigrant reception centers around the world and The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has requested $ 255 million for emergency measures to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 eruption is well.
Ms. Zsuzsanna Jakab, WHO’s European Regional Director, said technical assistance and guidance in the face of the Covid-19 is an imperative to every country in which the epidemic has spread. Mexico has developed Covid-19 educational materials for the management of immigrants and refugees in advance. In addition, Covid-19 has provided advisory migrant refugee telephone numbers in Bammer, Lao and Burma, while enhancing the effectiveness of Singapore’s Wi-Fi technology, the receiver and the need for immediate intervention in emergency situations. While experiencing with Covid-19 the standard of technical intervention can also be presented. In this scenario, the global campaign to protect and defend the world’s refugees against the Covid-19 has been launched globally. In the face of this deadly virus, the number of refugee deaths in control is a huge achievement. Furthermore, according to UNHCR, 131 refugee hosting countries have received Covid community transmissions, but these impacts have been mitigated. In the face of this health crisis, the United Nations Human Rights Council has also temporarily halted the resettlement of refugees from March 17, 2020, and the IRCC’s temporary suspension of immigration debt collection until September 6, 2020, as a relief for migrants and refugees. In the United States, state governments provided donations to refugees and other deprived people in Victoria, USA. But there are reports that no migrants or refugees have been tested positive for COVID-19 in Serbia, which a very unfortunate situation. Nine is developing
Countries, including Uganda, Nicaragua and Zimbabwe, where large numbers of refugees live, have doubled their cases in less than a week, making the Covid-19 virus a social problem that goes beyond health problem. After all my personal opinion is that the inclusion of refugees with host communities in the global national and regional health response plans and social security schemes, the principle of non- refoulement on a proper program for working with refugee-hosting and returning countries, and international human rights and refugee law Respectfully, strategies for border management are important depending on this situation.
In this backdrop, this year’s World Refugee Day was held on June 20th, with a standardized knowledge that a competing technological society can successfully cope with a life threatening refugee life by creating a conducive environment for refugees in a challenging global pandemic. It is important to create the environment necessary to live independently in the world. The truth is that the topic of refugees who have not been properly addressed in the general society, over and over again, is very timely and important.
Sujan De silva
Faculty of law, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka