HANGING

Hanging is that type of rough asphyxia passing, which is brought about by the suspension of the body by a ligature which encompasses the neck, the tightening power being the weight. It is a typical practice in India and in different nations, to slaughter a casualty and afterward to suspend the body from tree or some other item to reproduces antemortem hanging with suicidal hanging. It is therefore, necessary for law enforcing agencies including doctors and forensic experts to take special precautions while working on these types of cases. The ligature mark alone is anything but an analytic element of death from hanging. Ligature might be created, if a body has been suspended not long after death. Despite ligature mark, spilling of salivation from the purpose of mouth, slight scratched spots around ligature mark ecchymosis slice of the intima of the carotid hallways with extravasation of blood with in their divider are significant indications of hanging. Other than these signs, there will be no proof of battle, scratches, nail marks and deadly wounds or harming signs and conditional confirmations may likewise be contemplated.

Causes of death in hanging

1) Asphyxia: The ligature material’s constricting force causes compressive narrowing of the larynx and the trachea, and thereby forces up the root of the tongue against the posterior wall of the pharynx, and folds the epiglottis over the passage of the larynx to hinder the aviation route. This obstacle of the aviation route causes air hunger and on the off chance that section of air in the lungs is totally forestalled, at that point passing happens quickly with checked indications of asphyxia. A strain of 15kg on ligature hinders the windpipe.

2) Venous blockage: In cases, where the bunch is arranged in and around the jaw region, the venous stream is deterred, yet the blood vessel stream stays flawless. The jugular veins are involved, resulting in stoppage of the cerebral circulation and a rapid rise in venous pressure in the head leading to unconsciousness. A tension of 2 to 3 kg is needed for such kind of incident.

3) Joined impact of asphyxia and venous blockage: This is the commonest cause.

4) Cerebral anaemia: If the rope is situated at the nape of the neck, then both arterial and venous blood flow are cut off by the pressure of the noose on both sides of the neck. Pressure on the large arteries produces cerebral anaemia and immediate coma within a short span of 10 to 15 seconds. A strain of 4 to 5 kg crushes both the carotids and a pressure of 20 kg is required for devastating the vertebral veins.

5) Reflex vagal restraint: Due to pressure over the carotid bodies or vagal sheath.

6) Fracture and dislocation of the cervical vertebra: More commonly seen in judicial hanging.

Causes of death


Immediate causes

  • Prevention of entry of oxygen into respiratory passages (airway occlusion).
  • Vascular congestion from compression of large veins, subsequently interfering with blood supply to the brain leading to anoxia.
  • Combination of the above.
  • Compression of arteries of the neck with direct anoxic consequences on the brain.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest due to reflex vagal inhibition.

Delayed causes

  • Infection.
  • Sequelae of hypoxia to the brain.
  • Oedemic of the organs, especially the lungs.

Autopsy findings

Ligature mark: The ligature leaves its very own unmistakable wrinkle width and example on the skin surface. The bed of the wrinkle might be pale, and the edges rosy earthy coloured because of scraped area brought about by the tightening. Now and again the whole imprint seems rosy earthy coloured. Ecchymosis and clog of adjoining skin might be seen. All in all, the more slender and harder the material utilized, the more articulated is the ligature mark. So also, the milder and more extensive the material, the less particular is the ligature mark. The skin in the area of the ligature mark is commonly dry and hard.
The example of the ligature utilized frequently gets engraved on the skin as a weight scraped area. The ligature mark is typically arranged over the degree of the hyoid bone, and is diagonal, passing in reverse and upwards evenly on either side to the point of suspension. The imprint isn’t seen at the purpose of suspension, and furthermore in those districts where there is mediating hair or dress. Now and again there might be more than one ligature mark when the material has been twisted around the neck more than once. In such cases, the skin between the ligature imprints will show up wounded due to squeezing. Minutely, the ligature mark shows the standard attributes of a scraped area, indicating desquamation and straightening of cells of the epidermis. On the off chance that passing has happened rapidly, imperative response might be very hard to illustrate.

Medico-legal aspects of hanging

1) Hanging is perpetually self-destructive, until except if in any case demonstrated material accessible at that point of time can be utilized for the demonstration found at the area of the passing which is utilized for arriving at the purpose of suspension. That stool might be found in a turned down situation as the individual hops of the stool in the wake of tying the ligature.
2) Tragic instances of inadvertent hanging are likewise announced where kids play hazardous
3) Homicidal hanging: Homicidal hanging is hard to build up until except if the individual is affected by any medications or liquor or is a simple kid or powerless and Lynching is a type of maniacal hanging where a blamed for homicide or then again assault is hanged in a public square by a crowd as a piece of completing equity.
“Lynching” is gotten from Charles Lynch (1736-96) who regulated unpleasant equity in Virginia. This was his system of punishment given to African-American (Negro) slaves for rape or murder who were being lynched by angry white mob.
4) Judicial hanging: In certain nations, including India, hanging is the method of conveying out the death penalty or legitimate execution of capital punishment secured by a dark veil and he is made to remain on a stage above secret entryways, which the rope is permitted to drop 5 to 7 meters as indicated by the tallness and weight of the individual. The bunch is set under the edge of the abrupt stoppage of the moving body with the brutal snapping development causes crack separation generally at the degree of second-third or third-fourth cervical vertebrae. Bilateral fracture of the pedicle of the second-third or third-fourth cervical vertebrae occur which is called hangman’s fracture.
5) Less commonly, the dislocation of the Atlanta occipital joint or the odontoid process of the hub vertebra causes pulping of the spinal string and exchange of the cervical rope. There even can be crack of the mind stem with legitimate legal hanging momentary and irreversible loss of awareness and irreversible apnoea. Death is almost always instantaneous and asphyxia signs are not seen markedly if proper judicial hanging is being executed.

Postmortem hanging:
At times the casualty might be killed by some different methods and afterward hanged posthumous so as to delude the police. In such cases the ligature imprint won’t give the commonplace indications of risk mortem hanging like cutting, designed scraped area, parchmentization neither any fundamental responses will be available. More-over, by a thorough and meticulous postmortem examination, the original cause of death can also be established.

Post Mortem Appearance:
Remotely the presence of the ligature mark is the most significant finding and explicit sign the ligature blemish on the neck relies upon

1) Composition of the ligature: That includes the example and surface of the ligature on the off chance that a nylon rope with designs utilized as a ligature material, at that point the equivalent might be viewed as a designed scraped spot over the neck. may not be that obvious, if a delicate and wide material is being utilized as ligature.
2) Width and assortment of the ligature: Sometimes a solitary ligature imprint might be created, and now and again different turns of ligature might be delivered if twofold turns In the event that a limited ligature material is utilized, at that point cutting is more as considerably more power is utilized per square meter of the zone, and if a delicate expansive material is used, then only a superficial mark is being produced.
3) The heaviness of the body and the level of suspension: The heavier the body, and more the hour of suspension, the more stamped will be ligature mark.
4) Length of time the body has been suspended: As it recommends, the more drawn out the body is suspended, the more checked will be the ligature mark. can likewise create a stamped ligature impression if the suspension time is more and a slender ligature material may not create a cutting, if the body is brought down inside a short period of time. Incidentally, if a soft and broad ligature material used, and body is also brought down within a short span of time, then very faint external mark may be produced.
5) Position of the knot: It is important to comment upon the position of the knot, if it’s present in situ. The main force applied is usually opposite to the point of suspension.
6) Slipping of the ligature mark: There is inclination of the ligature imprint to slip twofold impression of the ligature and all things considered. what’s more, is associated by scraped areas delivered during slipping development.
7) Knot mark: The area and the kind of the bunch mark is being recorded. noted whether the ligature is beneath the jaw, underneath the ear or at the scruff of the neck. This delivers an upset “V” formed ligature mark, relating to the site of the hitch. The bunch might be a fixed sort of bunch or running kind of bunch.
8) Removal of the ligature material: The bunch ought to never be opened for eliminating. The initial step is to take photo before expulsion of the ligature material: The knot should never be opened for removing the ligature material. The first step is to take photograph before removal of the ligature material. The ligature is now cut opposite the knot and the two cut ends are secured with a string.

References

  • www.researchgate.net
  • http://worldwidejournals.co.in/index.php/ijsr/article/view/1146
  • http://epgp.inflibnet.ac.in/epgpdata/uploads/epgp_content/S000016FS/P000701/M015747/ET/1464333062FSC_P14_M27_e-text.pdf
  • http://stgmu.ru/userfiles/depts/forensic/from_english_speaking/FM_theme_6-7.doc
  • http://www.academia.edu/3003781/Post-Mortem_Appearances_in_Hanging_and_the_Cardinal_Sign_in_Ante-Mortem_Hanging_to_Ascertain_Hanging_as_the_Cause_of_Death
  • http://medind.nic.in/jal/t13/i1/jalt13i1p63.pdf

AUTHOR

LEENA SINGH CHOUDHARY